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Red grain sorghum is one of the most important cereals grown in Argentina for export to different countries, due to its high quality and care throughout its growing cycle.
If you want to find the best variety and quality of red grain sorghum, in this article we are going to detail all the necessary information so that you can buy it in a simple, simplified way and gathering everything you need to know for the export of grains from Argentina.
Red grain sorghum
Some types and varieties of this cereal are used as feed for different animals and are highly prized for this reason. Sorghum has a high protein content and quality that can be compared to traditional protein sources, such as soybeans. They also have high levels of micronutrients, such as zinc, phosphorus and iron.
Importance of sorghum production in Argentina
Sorghum is a historical crop in Argentina. In 1970 and 1971 it covered 3.12 million hectares and produced 8.1 million tons of this abundant and sought-after cereal. Due to various factors, in recent years an average of 1.2 million hectares were cultivated and about 4 million tons were produced.
The main destination of sorghum seed production has historically been exports. In this sense, there is a very clear commercial dynamic, beyond any factor or circumstance: this commercialization has never been interrupted for decades.
In other words, exporting companies know how and where to place this product. Likewise, the countries that import sorghum know our product. Argentina has been a traditional supplier of sorghum to the international market, with significant volumes, which have long consolidated it as a major world exporter, alternating second place with Australia, after the United States. This is another advantage of Argentine sorghum
Harvest dates in Argentina
When the grain is fully mature, the sorghum plant still has green leaves. Therefore, it is not necessary to wait for the plant to dry before harvesting, but the time of harvest will depend mainly on the destination of the sorghum grain: whether it is for grain, silage or agribusiness.
It is important to emphasize that in the sorghum heaps, the flowers are born from the distal end of the plant towards its base, between 5 and 10 days.
Depending on the type of crop and requirement for use, a 2.50 m tall silage hybrid can be harvested for silage at 35-50 cm from ground level.
Depending on the type of sorghum, the harvest date will depend on the type of sorghum:
For sorghum (grain): harvest is in February, March, April and May.
For sorghum (silage): harvesting takes place in January, February and March.
For forage sorghum, grazing starts at 45 days.
The following table shows the time of planting and harvesting in the year, depending on the province of cultivation:
Sorghum reaches the stage or cycle of physiological maturity when the total water content of the grain is around 35 percent. It is possible to harvest it from 30 percent moisture inside, but generally, the drying of red grain sorghum is agile, fast and the harvest is carried out at a humidity between 18 and 25 percent.
Red grain sorghum is a summer crop in Argentina and belongs to the grass family and to the genus Sorghum.
It is the fifth most important cereal in the world after corn, wheat, rice and barley, accounting for 3% of the total production in the country.
The agronomic characteristics of sorghum led to an increase in area in recent years.
In Argentina, the production of this cereal is mainly concentrated in the Pampas region, with the areas of Santa Fe and Córdoba being the best places to plant it.
The crop has low costs to be implemented, which allows it to compete in profitability with annual crops such as corn and soybean in both the domestic and international markets, obtaining important yields.
The sowing date is mainly related to soil temperature and moisture content. The appropriate temperature for planting red sorghum is around 16 °C (average of temperatures taken at 8, 13 and 17 hours) at a depth of 5 centimeters.
Sorghum is able to germinate at lower temperatures, but emergence is slow and not very uniform, which should be considered in case of direct seeding where the surface temperature tends to be lower due to the residues in the soil, logically.
Grain sorghum is sown in September, October and November, as well as sorghum (silage). In the case of forage sorghum, it is always sown between September, October and November.
Grain sorghum resists drought and high soil moisture better than most cereals and grows well in a wide range of surface conditions.
It responds very well to irrigation, requiring at least 250 millimeters of water during its cycle, with an optimum of 400-550 mm from planting to final harvest.
The early varieties have a cycle with a total duration of 100 days, with 68-75 days to flowering.
On the other hand, intermediate varieties have a cycle of up to 120 days, with 68-80 days until flowering and long-cycle varieties have a total cycle duration of more than 120 days with 72-82 days until flowering.
Currently there are different types of sorghum for export, which will be briefly discussed below:
Grain: within this grain group we can find VDH 314 (high tannin), ADV 1302 (high tannin), ADV 1305 (low tannin), VDH 422 (dual purpose), ADV 1100 (high tannin), ADV 1200 (high tannin), ADV 1305 (low tannin) and ADV 114 (high tannin).
Foragers: within this other group we can find ADV 2800 BMR, ADV 2701 (photosensitive), VDH 701 (photosensitive), CANDY GRACE (20 kgs.), SUPER GAUCHAZO (20 kgs.), DAIRY MASTER (20 kgs.), NUGRASS 900 (photosensitive x 20 kgs.) and NUGRASS 800 BMR (photosensitive x 20 kgs.).
Silage: this third group includes ADV 2499 (dual purpose) and SUGARGRAZE AR.
Top 3 red sorghum grain exporting companies
The following are the main companies involved in the export of this cereal in Argentina:
CCS (Córdoba Custom Service). Website: www.cba-cs.com.ar
COFCO Argentina. Web site: www.cofcointernational.com.ar
Cargill Argentina. Website: www.cargillargentina.com.ar
About the export sorghum we have
Sorghum (called “Sorghum spp”) is a genus of grasses native to the mainly tropical and subtropical regions of East Africa. This cereal is cultivated in its area of origin, Europe, America and Asia as a product for human consumption, for animals, in the production of different fodder, and for the elaboration of alcoholic beverages and the manufacture of residential brooms.
It is an important crop in rather arid regions, and is one of the most important food crops internationally because of its resistance to drought and heat.
In the context of the whole world of “feed” grains, sorghum ranks third in terms of production volume, after corn and barley, at a total of 1.32 billion tons.
Looking for a quote on red grain sorghum? Please contact us by clicking here so we can help you and simplify any task related to the export of this cereal.
Sorghum export duty protocol and countries where we are exporting most of our grain.
Among the 9 most important importers worldwide are China, Bolivia, Chile and Uruguay, who are also positioned as the most important buyers of Argentina.
Within the Argentine tariff treatment, a 12% sorghum export duty must be paid. This is the tax levied on exports for consumption (Art. 724 C.A.). It is then export for consumption when it is removed from the customs territory for an indefinite period of time (Art. 725 C.A.).
It is also called “retentions” due to some political discussions generated around its establishment. The drawback, on the other hand, is 0%.
As special treatments, the refund is 0.5% for organic products. Regarding the term for the entry and liquidation of foreign currency, it is 15 calendar days.
Republic of China
The opening of the Chinese market, which today is the main importer of this product at international level, is a great opportunity for Argentine sorghum to position itself in a very large and growing market, which currently absorbs about 65% of world trade. The Chinese market represents our greatest opportunity today!
In this sense, it is important to highlight the constant task of SENASA in the hard negotiation carried out before a highly demanding market such as the Chinese one, which was crowned in 2014 with the joint approval of the phytosanitary protocol to be able to enter this Asian country without problems.
This is one of the neighboring countries that has grown lately regarding the purchase of red grain sorghum for different uses and destinations from Argentina, mainly for animal consumption.
Chile is one of the main export destinations for sorghum produced in Argentina, as it is a high quality raw material, noble and with several nutritional characteristics that make it unique.
Uruguay is one of the countries that began to acquire sorghum as an economic zone of Argentina to pour its important production of this complete cereal, for different applications and uses, among them animal consumption, distillate production and human consumption.
If you are looking for red sorghum grain producers to export from Argentina and you don’t know how to start, we are here to help you. Contact us through this form to get advice and clear all your doubts.
We look forward to hearing from you!